From the Latin modus ("manner"), mode may denote, depending on the context: the classification of a chant according to its pitch range (ambitus) and final pitch (finalis); a scale for composition and improvisation, distinguished from other modes not by pitch collection (as different keys are) but by its tonic and the pattern of intervals made by the scale degrees; the distinction between Western major and minor scales, e.g., "the minor mode." Or a model for melodic improvisation (Byzantine oktoēchos, Indian rāga, Chinese tyao, Arabic {}maqam, Persian dastgah, Japanese choshi).
   The traditional classification of Gregorian chants into one of eight "church modes" is an adaptation by Carolingian musicians of the Byzantine system of eight oktoēchos transmitted to the west during the eighth century. Thus the use of Greek ordinals (proteus, etc.) to classify the modes by finalis and Greek names for individual modes deriving from melodic ambitus. The Arabic numerals in figure 3 are found in modern chant books.
   The finalis of a chant determines whether its mode is proteus, deuterius, tritus, or tetrardus. Whether it is authentic or plagal depends upon the ambitus of the whole melody. Since the oldest Gregorian chants have an ambitus of one octave or less, they usually fit quite easily into an authentic mode if the finalis is among the lowest pitches, or into a plagal mode if the finalis is in the middle range. Medieval theorists tried to classify and explain a chant repertory that already existed, and while the fit is remarkably good, inevitably there are chants that find no easy modal classification. Chants of the later Middle Ages often move through an ambitus of a twelfth or more, making the authentic/plagal classification tenuous. The common use in some modes (especially proteus and tritus) of the "soft B" or B-flat makes the pitch collection an increasingly important attribute of the mode. Much medieval modal theory concerns itself with reconciling such problems.
   Heinrich Glarean added four additional modes to the traditional eight in his Dodechachordon (1547) to account for polyphony composed on tonal centers C and A. Gioseffo Zarlino (1517–1590) offered a different synthesis based on the Guidonian hexachords in his
   Figure 3. Breves indicate the finalis. Whole notes indicate the dominant, which was taken as the tenor, or reciting pitch in the psalm tones.
   Le Istitutioni Harmoniche (1558). Preference for the Glarean versus the Zarlino numeration varied by locality.
   The most practical application of modal theory to Latin chant is in psalmody. Every psalm sung in the divine office is introduced and followed by a proper antiphon, and the mode of this antiphon determines that of the psalm. By specifying the reciting tone, range, and melodic cadence and finalis, this use of the mode concept approximates the "manner of singing" or melodic modeling that predominates in the modal concepts of other cultures.
   The Steiger in the music of Eastern European Jewry, for example, are not scales but melodic formulas for chanting associated with its function as a beginning, middle, or ending, and also with the mood of the moment. In figure 4, the names are taken from the prayers with which the Steiger are most commonly identified. In Die Tonarten des {}traditionellen Synagogen-Gesanges (Vienna, 1886), Joseph Singer (1841–1911) systematized these traditional prayer modes. Other systems of the Middle East and South Asia emphasize such melodic models of improvisation with more and less important pitches; the Persian dastghah or Arabic maqam are examples. North Indian (Hindustani) rägas tend to reflect the melodic shapes that arise from improvisations, as well as principal pitches and kinds of ornamentation, while South Indian (Karnatak) rägas are more like scales in concept. All of these systems have important semantic associations with moods, times of day, seasons, therapies, and cosmologies in varying degree.
   See also Lahan; Musica Ficta.
   Figure 4. Breves indicate finals. Diamond notes indicate co-finals, alternate cadence points for interior sections or phrases. Whole notes indicate principal melodic tones; black noteheads indicate ornamental melodic tones.

Historical dictionary of sacred music. . 2006.


Look at other dictionaries:

  • mode — mode …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • MODE — Un examen rapide de la définition du mot «mode» montre qu’à ce terme deux autres vocables sont souvent associés: le «monde» (pour société ou univers) et la «modernité». Dérivée du substantif latin modus (façon d’être passagère) et de l’adverbe… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • mode — 1. (mo d ) s. m. 1°   Terme de philosophie. Manière d être qui ne peut exister indépendamment des substances, quoiqu elle puisse être conçue à part abstraitement. •   Le mode est un accident que l on conçoit nécessairement dépendant de quelque… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Mode — (aus dem Französischen mode; lat. modus ‚Maß‘ bzw. ‚Art‘, eigentlich ‚Gemessenes‘ bzw. ‚Erfasstes‘) bezeichnet die in einem bestimmten Zeitraum und einer bestimmten Gruppe von Menschen als zeitgemäß geltende Art, bestimmte Dinge zu tun, Dinge zu… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mode X — is an alternative video graphics display mode of the IBM VGA graphics hardware that was popularized by Michael Abrash, first published in July 1991 in Dr. Dobb s Journal, republished in chapters 47 49 of Abrash s Graphics Programming Black Book… …   Wikipedia

  • Mode 2 — ist ein Begriff der Wissenschaftsforschung und wurde 1994 von Helga Nowotny, Peter Scott, Michael Gibbons u. a. als Konzept zur Beschreibung der zeitgenössischen Produktion wissenschaftlichen Wissens entwickelt. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Konzept 1.1… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • mode — [məʊd ǁ moʊd] noun 1. [countable] a way or means of doing something: mode of • susbsidies that support environmentally friendly modes of transport such as cycling • traditionalmodes of communication ˌmode of ˈpayment modes of payment …   Financial and business terms

  • Mode — (m[=o]d), n. [L. modus a measure, due or proper measure, bound, manner, form; akin to E. mete: cf. F. mode. See {Mete}, and cf. {Commodious}, {Mood} in grammar, {Modus}.] 1. Manner of doing or being; method; form; fashion; custom; way; style; as …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mode — W3 [məud US moud] n [Date: 1300 1400; : Latin; Origin: modus measure, way ] 1.) formal a particular way or style of behaving, living or doing something mode of ▪ the most efficient mode of transport ▪ They have a relaxed mode of life that suits… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • mode — [ moud ] noun ** ▸ 1 way of living/doing something ▸ 2 way machine works ▸ 3 art/clothes/etc. fashion ▸ 4 in music ▸ 5 way of behaving 1. ) count a particular way of doing something: mode of: an efficient mode of production E mail is becoming an… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • Mode — (franz., v. lat. modus, engl. Fashion), die Lebensformen, sofern sie weder durch nationale Überlieferung noch durch zwingende Erwägungen, sondern durch wechselnde Tageslaunen bestimmt werden. Das Gebiet, auf dem die M. am unbestrittensten… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.